VO2 max, or maximal oxygen consumption, is a key metric for evaluating our overall health and potential lifespan. This measure not only mirrors our cardiovascular fitness but also sheds light on our body’s physiological limits. VO2 max’s significance as a prime indicator of longevity is well supported by the scientific community, and enhancing this vital health marker can contribute to extending our lifespan while maintaining a high quality of life well into our later years. 


Multiple longitudinal studies have indicated a robust link between higher VO2 max values and reduced risk of mortality from all causes, not just those related to cardiovascular diseases.(1) In fact, it has proven to be a more reliable indicator of early mortality compared to other commonly measured factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and overall metabolic health.

VO2 max represents the maximum oxygen volume an individual can use during intense activity, expressed in millilitres per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min). It hinges on various factors, including cardiovascular efficiency, lung capacity, blood oxygen-carrying capability, and cellular-level oxygen utilization.

The Link Between VO2 Max and Longevity

As we age, our VO2 max naturally declines due to several factors, such as decreased heart function, reduced lung capacity, loss of muscle mass, and declining mitochondrial efficiency.(2) These changes limit the body’s ability to deliver, uptake, and utilize oxygen effectively during physical activity. Given the robust link between VO2 max and lifespan, the importance of maintaining a high VO2 max for a longer and healthier life cannot be overstated. Here’s why:

Cardiovascular Health—VO2 max indicates the effectiveness of the heart and lungs. Higher VO2 max levels correlate with reduced cardiovascular disease risks—like heart attacks and strokes. Activities such as walking, running, and cycling can bolster cardiovascular health and VO2 max.

Metabolic Efficiency—A superior VO2 max implies a more efficient metabolism that excellently uses oxygen to transform nutrients into energy. This efficiency fosters better insulin sensitivity and glucose management, decreasing diabetes and obesity risks. Aerobic and strength training can elevate metabolic efficiency and VO2 max.

Mitochondrial Function—VO2 max relates closely to the health of mitochondria and cells’ energy producers. Aerobic exercises increase mitochondrial function and VO2 max, with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and endurance activities providing significant benefits.

Why Optimizing VO2 Max Is Vital For Maintaining Functional Independence Later In Life

The rate at which VO2 max declines varies from person to person, influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle habits, and overall health status. On average, sedentary adults experience a decline of approximately 10% in their VO2 max per decade after the age of 30, with this rate of decline accelerating once they reach their 60s.(3)

To put this into perspective, let’s consider an individual in their 40s with a current VO2 max of 30 ml/kg/min. If we apply the average rate of decline and assume a sedentary lifestyle, by the time this person reaches their 70s, their VO2 max will have decreased to around 20 ml/kg/min. This decline in cardiovascular fitness can have significant implications for their daily physical performance, independence, and overall quality of life.

Given this knowledge, it becomes clear that investing in increasing one’s VO2 max during their younger years can pay significant dividends later in life. By engaging in regular aerobic exercise and adopting a healthy lifestyle, individuals can work to maximize their VO2 max in their 30s, 40s, 50s, and beyond. This proactive approach to cardiovascular fitness can help create a buffer against the natural decline that occurs with aging, allowing a higher level of functionality and independence well into their later years.

Understanding VO2 Max Scores

VO2 max scores vary by age, sex, and fitness level:

  • Very Low Fitness Level: Scores below 20 ml/kg/min. Individuals with VO2 max scores in this range may struggle with performing daily activities that require any significant physical effort. They are typically sedentary and may experience fatigue during light tasks such as walking short distances or doing housework.
  • Low to Moderate Fitness Level: Scores between 20 to 30 ml/kg/min. This range is adequate for most sedentary or lightly active daily activities. People in this category can handle tasks like walking, grocery shopping, and light household chores without significant difficulty. However, they might find more vigorous activities challenging.
  • Average Fitness Level: Generally, 30-40 ml/kg/min for men and 25-35 ml/kg/min for women. Individuals within this range can comfortably engage in daily activities including more strenuous tasks such as brisk walking, climbing stairs, and moderate household tasks like gardening or mowing the lawn.
  • Good to High Fitness Level: Often above 40 ml/kg/min for men and 35-45 ml/kg/min for women.Individuals with these scores are highly active and can easily handle all daily activities and engage in more demanding tasks such as heavy lifting, extensive walking, or running, and other physical activities without undue fatigue.
  • Very High Fitness Levels and Athletes: May exceed 50 ml/kg/min for men and 45 ml/kg/min for women, with elite endurance athletes achieving much higher.

Specific Activities and Required VO2 Max Scores

A higher VO2 max significantly enhances daily physical performance and independence in older adults, allowing them to perform daily tasks with greater ease and reduced fatigue. It is also associated with improved balance and coordination, which aids in reducing the risk of falls. Regular aerobic exercise, which helps maintain or increase VO2 max, supports cognitive function and mental well-being, further contributing to overall quality of life as people age.

According to the American Heart Association, a VO2 max of about 15-20 ml/kg/min is typically sufficient for maintaining independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) for older adults.(4) However, maintaining a VO2 max score above 20 ml/kg/min is preferable to performing daily life activities without significant limitations. For a comfortable cushion and to ensure the ability to engage in a broader range of activities, aiming for a score above 35 ml/kg/min is advisable.

Here’s a general breakdown to understand the required levels for various activities:

  • Walking and Light Chores (e.g., cooking, dusting): A VO2 max score of about 20 ml/kg/min might be sufficient. These activities generally require low cardiovascular and respiratory demands.
  • Shopping, Climbing Stairs: A score of around 25 ml/kg/min would be adequate. These activities require moderate effort and engage multiple muscle groups.
  • Moderate Gardening, Mowing the Lawn: For these moderately intense activities, a score closer to 35 ml/kg/min would ensure that the individual can perform them without excessive fatigue.
  • Vigorous Physical Activities (e.g., brisk walking, light jogging): Scores around 40-45 ml/kg/min or higher are needed for more physically demanding daily tasks. These activities are intense enough to require better cardiovascular fitness.

Testing VO2 Max

The most accurate way to measure VO2 max is through a laboratory test, typically conducted on a treadmill or a stationary bike. The test involves progressively increasing the intensity of exercise until exhaustion, while breath-by-breath measurements are taken to calculate oxygen consumption. You can do an internet search for a facility in your area that will test your VO2 max, however, these lab tests may not be not easily accessible and do come at a cost, typically ranging from $100 to $250. Luckily, there are alternatives. Here are a couple of well-validated techniques for estimating VO2 max yourself:

Cooper 12-minute Run Test—Just as it sounds, you run as far as you can in 12 minutes. This is likely to be between 1 and 2 miles unless you are very well trained. Enter the distance you cover into an online calculator or use the formula: (35.97 x miles) – 11.29 or (22.351 x kilometres) – 11.288 (5) 

Rockport Walk Test—If you have difficulty running, use the Rockport Walk Test. Walk 1 mile, as fast as you can but avoid jogging, and record the time in decimals (minutes + seconds/60) and your heart rate when finished. Enter this and your weight and age in decimals (years + months/12) in an online calculator, or use the formula: 132.853 – (0.0769 x weight in lbs) – (0.3877 x age) + (6.315 if male or 0 if female) – 3.2648 x time) – (0.1565 x heart rate) (6) 

Wearable Devices—Many modern fitness trackers estimate VO2 max during exercise based on heart rate data and personal metrics like age and weight, however, these devices often have a greater degree of variability than performing the aforementioned testing methods. 

Practical Ways to Improve VO2 Max

To boost your VO2 max and extend your lifespan, consider these strategies:

  • Regular Aerobic Exercise: Engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise weekly, like jogging or swimming.
  • High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): Alternate between intense exercise bursts and resting periods. Incorporate sprint intervals into your routine under expert guidance.
  • Endurance Activities: Increase the duration and intensity of exercises like long-distance running to enhance your cardiovascular fitness.
  • Strength Training: Complement aerobic workouts with strength training to improve muscle strength and endurance, contributing to better VO2 max.
  • Consistency and Progression: Maintain regular workout sessions and gradually intensify your exercises to foster cardiovascular improvements and VO2 max gains.

Setting Realistic Fitness Goals

Improving VO2 max should be a progressive endeavour:

  1. Assess Your Current Fitness Level: Evaluate your exercise habits and cardiovascular health to set a baseline.
  2. Aim for Incremental Progress: Establish achievable goals that gradually enhance your fitness.
  3. Incorporate Cardiovascular Exercise: Regularly perform running, cycling, or swimming to boost VO2 max.
  4. Gradually Increase Exercise Intensity: Push your cardiovascular system by increasing workout intensity and incorporating intervals.
  5. Include Endurance Training: Endurance activities improve aerobic capacity and VO2 max.
  6. Cross-Train: Mix different exercises like yoga or sports to prevent monotony and enhance overall fitness.
  7. Prioritize Nutrition, Rest, and Recovery: Support your fitness with a balanced diet, adequate rest, and proper recovery.

The message is clear: don’t wait until it’s too late. Start prioritizing your cardiovascular fitness now, no matter your age or current fitness level. Every incremental improvement in VO2 max is a step towards a more active, independent, and fulfilling life in your golden years. Your VO2 max score is not just a number – it’s a powerful tool for taking control of your health trajectory and ensuring that you can continue to live life to the fullest, now and in the future.

 In-Text References

  1. Kodama, S., Saito, K., Tanaka, S., Maki, M., Yachi, Y., Asumi, M., Sugawara, A., Totsuka, K., Shimano, H., Ohashi, Y., Yamada, N., Sone, H. (2009). Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 301(19), 2024–2035.
  2. Kim CH, Wheatley CM, Behnia M, Johnson BD. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 1;11(8):e0160275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160275. PMID: 27479009; PMCID: PMC4968829.
  3. Kim CH, Wheatley CM, Behnia M, Johnson BD. The Effect of Aging on Relationships between Lean Body Mass and VO2max in Rowers. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 1;11(8):e0160275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160275. PMID: 27479009; PMCID: PMC4968829.
  4. Letnes JM, Nes BM, Wisløff U. Age-related decline in peak oxygen uptake: Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal findings. A review. Int J Cardiol Cardiovasc Risk Prev. 2023 Jan 13;16:200171. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcrp.2023.200171. PMID: 36874046; PMCID: PMC9975246.
  5. Cooper, K. H. (1968). A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake. JAMA, 203(3), 201. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1968.03140030033008 
  6. Kline, G.M., Porcari, J.P., Hintermeister, R., et al. (1987). Estimation of VO2 Max from a one mile track walk, gender, age, and body weight. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19(3), 253-259.
General HealthVO2 Max: The Powerful Predictor of Longevity and Quality of Life
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